How Long Does It Take for a Tomato to Switch Red After Being Full Grown to a Plant?

Few things in life are as annoying as waiting for that first green tomato of the season to ripen or your green tomatoes turn red before frost kills plants. Ripening is a complex procedure in tomatoes, making it difficult to predict exactly how much time it is going to have a fully-formed green tomato to turn red.

Inside the Machine

Tomato ripening is a complex process involving tens of thousands of chemical reactions. Pigments like carotene and lycopene are created as chlorophyll breaks down, causing the gradual coloration of this fruit. At exactly the exact same time, acid levels are rising, causing starches in the fruit to convert into sugars and softening the tomato. Under perfect circumstances, this may all occur in as little as a week, however, often requires 20 days or longer in certain weather conditions.

Factors Affecting Ripening

Many factors play key roles in ripening tomatoes, such as ambient temperature, soil temperature, the plant’s natural ability to produce the hormone ethylene and even the number of fruits demanding ripening. Ambient temperatures over 85 degrees Fahrenheit or soil temperatures over 80 degrees would be the primary reasons why tomato plants set the brakes on ripening. Occasionally, a plant is so heavily laden with green fruits that it simply lacks the energy to encourage them all to ripening. Some gardeners remove the smallest tomatoes in an over-burdened plant; raising water and sulfur for plants experiencing hot roots may also accelerate ripening.

Ripening Indoors

Tomato fruits are sometimes ripened inside by craftsmen when sunscald or pest insects are a persistent problem or whenever frost starts to threaten. A tomato picked in the “breaker” point, when a blush of its finished color looks, will ripen fully on the kitchen countertop if kept out of direct sunlight. Tomatoes harvested at the breaker stage contain all of the sugars of a completely vine-ripened tomato and will develop exactly the same taste.

Hastening the Final Harvest

As winter looms and frost threatens, many gardeners rush into the lawn to cover their plants, trusting those remaining fruits will ripen until the plants die. You can speed ripening in your tomatoes by eliminating any green fruits that are not fully developed — these tomatoes will probably not grow further due to cooling temperatures anyhow. Withholding water and fertilizer also will help accelerate the ripening procedure. If a killing freeze is predicted, uprooting your tomatoes and hanging them upside down in a basement or garage will make it possible for the rest of the fruits to ripen on the vine.

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Do it Yourself: Brick Sidewalk Pavers

If you’re planning to put in a new pathway, select bricks to bring a more complex design without raising the problem of installation. Brick sidewalk pavers add a traditional look to landscaping and are used often in walking surfaces. Lay them down along your pathway, and you will be astonished at how the overall look of your landscaping transforms from that one small addition.

Mark the pathway region. Place enough brick pavers around the surface in the desired pattern to discover how wide the path should be to fulfill your needs. Catch a 1/8-inch space between the bricks. Tap stakes into the ground all over the path edges and run string between the stakes to create straight lines to the path.

Remove the pavers and put them around the side. Use a scoop to scoop off the grass if there is any.

Measure the height of the brick sidewalk pavers and subtract 1/2 inch. Remove 4 inches of soil in addition to the width calculation of the pavers. This permits room for sub-material and attracts the pavers 1/2 inch above the ground so that rainwater is not able to readily wash debris on the trail.

Use a level to check the surface. If you’re on level ground, it stands to reason that you wish to maintain a level surface, but you also need water to flow to the either side of this path. Do this by building up the center only slightly, creating a slope into the sides of 1/4 inch for each 2 feet. Use the level that will assist you add and tamp down soil to earn the slope.

Fill in the region with 2 inches of gravel. Spread the gravel out evenly and utilize your level to keep up the slope. Tamp down the gravel with a compactor, walking it back and forth across the region. Check the slopes into the side once you tamp the gravel and add more if needed.

Fill the region with 2 inches of mud in precisely the exact same manner as you did the gravel. Tamp it down and check the slope into the sides.

Start at one side and set the bricks in the pattern that you chose, spacing the brick pavers 1/8 inch apart. Use spacers if required to maintain the spacing as you move. Don’t press the bricks down into the mud.

Pour sand above the brick pavers once you’ve placed them to fill the spaces between the bricks. Use a broom to sweep the mud around, allowing it to fall in between the 1/8-inch spaces. Run the compactor above the surface to place the pavers.

Water the pathway lightly with a garden hose to settle the mud.

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The way to Wire a Floor Lamp

A floor lamp adds style as well as light to your room. Whenever you have a floor lamp that’s no longer working correctly or come across just the right lamp base for your decor in chronological sequence, do not kick them to the curb. A broken socket or wiring can be replaced with readily accessible supplies and tools that are common. .

Unplug the present lamp cord from the power outlet. Unthread the nut at the top of the lamp harp and eliminate the lamp shade.

Pinch the sides of the lamp harp and eliminate it in the holder. Slide the lamp socket to loosen it in the base. Lift the lamp socket upwards and pull a few inches of wire through the base. Unscrew the screw on each of the two terminals with a screwdriver and remove the wires. Put the socket aside.

Untie the knot in the end of this electrical wire, and pull the cable through the underside of this lamp and place the cable aside. Twist off the lamp socket in the threaded nipple, and place it aside.

Thread the lamp socket foundation from a brand new lamp wiring kit onto the nipple and then hand tighten the socket base. Thread the cut end of the new wire through the hole at the base of this lamp, pushing the cable upwards until it looks above the lamp socket. Pull on a foot of cable from above the socket base.

Separate the two conductors in the end of the cable by about two inches and strip about 3/4-inch of insulation from each conductor with a pair of wire strippers. Tie a knot in the cable just under the point where the two wires separate.

Attach the ribbed or striped cable to the terminal screw marked as neutral on the brand new lamp socket with a screwdriver. Then attach the remaining wire to the other terminal. Feed the additional lamp cord through the socket base and then bench the socket to the foundation with a small twist.

Insert a fresh light bulb into the socket. Plug in the lamp cord to the outlet and test the light.

Attach the lamp harp to the holder, then place the shade over the tighten and tighten the nut to fasten the shade.

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Root Size to the Chinese Dogwood

Chinese dogwood (Cornus kousa var. Chinensis), a deciduous, flowering shrub or small tree, is native to Japan, Korea and China and hardy at U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 8. As a general rule, the magnitude of the main structure of this tree is four to seven times the area covered with its crown. Chinese dogwood includes a 15- to 30-foot crown, so its roots could cover an area from approximately 185 to 660 square feet.

Planting

Most Chinese dogwoods are offered in nursery pots or even “balled and burlaped,” using their roots encased in a ball of dirt which is then wrapped in burlap or some similar material. To allow for root growth, it is important to either cut or removed large slits in the burlap wrapping stuff. If you don’t do so, the plant’s roots grow in circles instead of growing outward. Finally this weakens and kills the young tree.

Where to Plant

Plant young dogwoods in sunlight to light shade with a eye on the mature size of the roots and crown. If the dogwood is meant as a street tree, make sure the planting strip between the curb and the sidewalk is wide enough to accommodate the roots. If the strip isn’t wide enough, then plant the dogwood on the opposite side — property or house side — of this sidewalk. The planting hole should be at least twice as wide as it is deep to permit for root growth.

Root Growth

Most Chinese dogwood roots, like those of most trees, which are at the top 18 inches of dirt. Due to this, it is very important to mulch and water the trees, especially when they are young. Watering is best done by drip irrigation, which reduces water evaporation. Mulch, that insulates and conserves soil moisture, should be spread in at least a 3-foot-wide circle around, but not touching the trunk. Mulch thickness should be 3 to 4 inches.

Care

When the Chinese dogwood is established, good root care will ensure it continues to be healthy and blossom freely. Avoid piling additional top soil around the base of this tree. When digging inside the root zone — for example installing garden plants — plant in pockets between roots, rather than cutting through roots. Don’t cut through roots to set up walkways or other hardscaping. Roots that are severed or otherwise limited cannot support the tree adequately or hold the dirt well enough to stay upright in strong winds.

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How to Install a Pop-Up Umbrella Lavatory Sink Drain

An umbrella pop-up fits to the bottom of the lavatory. It differs from a traditional pop-up style drain, in that the umbrella style requires no pop-up arm to be lifted or lowered to close or open the drain. Instead, the umbrella drain operates by simply pushing down on the drain cap to engage or disengage the closing mechanism. You may install a pop-up umbrella lavatory sink drain in with just a couple of hand tools and perhaps even limited DIY skills.

Loosen the fixtures on the lower portion of the S-trap beneath the lavatory sink. If you cannot loosen them by hand, use a large pair of slip-joint pliers to loosen the fittings. Set the S-trap aside.

Loosen the locknut on the bottom of the drain tailpiece holding the current drain to the sink, and unthread the locknut. Push the aged drain tailpiece out of the sink and wipe off any old putty that remains.

Loosen and remove the locknut and washer from the bottom of a brand new pop-up umbrella drain. Apply a layer of plumber’s putty to the bottom of the flange only if instructed to do so by the manufacturer.

Slip the tailpiece to the drain hole from above the sink, and center the drain in the drain hole. Attach the cone-shaped drier you eliminated in the prior step back onto the threads with the broad edge facing down, followed with the locknut. Tighten the locknut by hand to guarantee the drain to the lavatory sink.

Reconnect the S-trap to the drain along with the new tailpiece. Tighten the couplers by hand.

Turn the water in the sink and watch the drain assembly for any leaks.

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How to Prune Periwinkles

The phrase “periwinkle” typically applies to Vinca major and Vinca minor. Vinca major, or big periwinkle, is winter hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture planting zones 7 through 9. The common or lesser periwinkle, Vinca minor, might be referred to as creeping myrtle and grows in USDA zones 4 through 9. While both plants are separate species within the genus, they have a whole lot in common. Periwinkles spread quickly, providing excellent groundcover and erosion prevention. Prolific reseeding habit assures that the plant’s return in spring, even in bitter spaces which kill it back completely. You will want to prune the enthusiastic periwinkles during the growing season to keep them well in hand.

Prune periwinkles back to approximately four inches tall with clean, sharp shears in early spring to reduce the plant’s natural trend toward ranginess. Do this immediately following the final predicted frost to your area and before new growth begins. Cut back big, thick, well-established patches of Vinca with your mower set to three or four inches high.

Feed periwinkles after pruning to encourage rapid, vigorous new growth. Utilize an all-purpose balanced 10-10-10 fertilizer. Follow the packaging instructions. These plants need only one annual feeding. Do not over-fertilize them; also much plant food boosts lush foliar growth with decreased flowering in periwinkles.

Pinch or trim off flowers as they fade through summer and spring to convince the plant that it’s reproductive job is not finished. The periwinkle responds to deadheading with ongoing blooming, therefore extending the flowering season considerably and keeping the plant’s look tidy.

Trim back long or lanky stems to points of origin as they happen to keep periwinkle plants looking appealing. Cut out damaged or dead growth as needed.

Prune back runners with clean, sharp shears as they sprout wherever you want to reduce periwinkle spread throughout the growing season. These plants root easily from any stem nodes that come into touch with garden dirt. Pruning runners also promotes fullness. Pull the frozen nodes and discard or destroy them; do not toss them onto the compost heap where they are sure to take hold and prosper.

Shear periwinkles back to approximately six inches tall in late summer when the plants become overgrown or untidy. Do not prune periwinkles during the autumn or winter, as pruning produces flushes of tender new shoots that are easily damaged by cold temperatures.

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How to Shade a Garden Pond

A backyard garden pond can come in a wide selection of sizes, from a small water feature at a barrel to a sizable in-ground installation. Whatever their sizes, all garden ponds which are exposed to sun can encounter issues with aquatic hardened and hardened algae blooms, which can mar the peaceful, peaceful beauty of your garden pond. Thankfully, adding shade to your pond reduces excess sun exposure, which can be among the vital factors in grass and algae growth, and consequently will help restore your pond’s appearance.

Add free-floating water crops, like water lilies and duckweed, in amounts which block approximately 40 to 60 percent of the pond’s water surface. At this speed, the floating plants’ flowers and foliage help shade the pond efficiently to keep it cool and decrease sun exposure, and in turn minimize the possibility of algae blooms and weed invasions.

Plant hardy, marginal pond plants around the edges of your pond, like sweet flag, pickerel weed and delicate rushes. Such low-maintenance plant functions several valuable functions, including maintaining debris from falling into the pond (dirt runoff and organic debris boost water nutrient levels and encourages algae growth) and casting shade across the borders of the water.

Add nontoxic pond water dye to the water as you’re waiting for your free-floating pond plants as well as marginal plants to become established. Such over-the-counter goods, available in most pond stores and many nurseries, add pigment to the water, which decreases ultraviolet penetration into the water.

Float squares of black vinyl tarp in the surface of your pond as an alternate to river plants and pond dye, covering 40 to 60 percent of the pond’s surface. While much less visually pleasing, this works well if your pond experiences just occasional exposure to sunlight during particular times of the year and, thus, long-term vegetation maintenance is not required.

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How to repair a Leaky Kitchen Sink in the Supply Line

The supply lines leading to the kitchen sink, both the hot and cold, begin at a water supply valve and end at the tap supply tubing that is attached to the faucet. The connections are all screw-on kinds, either hand-tightening nuts or even compression nuts, and in most cases this is where the problem lies. Virtually every contemporary kitchen sink supply line is really a do-it-yourself task, so repairing a leaky provide line is only going to require the use of tools that may be seen in every home toolbox.

Find the leak. Unless the leak is obvious — such as water squirting out from a connection or noticeably dripping off of a source valve — you will have to find it. Wipe down the supply line with a dry rag to remove all the moisture. Wrap toilet paper across the supply line beginning at the connections and the supply valve. Toilet paper will show wetness quickly, and you will be able to determine just where the leak emanates from by watching where the toilet paper gets wet.

Tighten the connections where the supply line attaches if it’s leaking there. Twist a hand-tightening nut a quarter run, or flip a compression nut a quarter turn using an adjustable wrench. In many cases the leak will stop after this is completed. If not, move on to Step 3.

Switch off the water at the source valve, which can be found under the sink. Eliminate the hand-tightening nut and then spread some plumber’s pipe compound onto the threads along with the drier inside the fitting. Tighten it down again, hand-tight. If the leak stops, the problem is solved. If the leak persists, the connection was compromised somehow, and it has to be replaced with a brand new supply line. If the compression nut doesn’t seal originally, back the nut off having an adjustable wrench and tighten it down once again. Once tightened, back it off and then tighten again. Sometimes the compression fitting has not seated correctly, and by loosening and tightening it two or three times, the fitting will finally seat. Turn the water on after trying to seat the matching. If it still leaks, you will need to install a new source line.

Turn the packing nut to the source valve if it’s water. Sometimes the leak will appear to be coming from the source line, but it’s actually coming from the packing nut on the valve. The packing nut is situated directly in the front of the on/off handle on the valve. Give it a quarter turn with a flexible wrench while the valve is turned on and the supply line is totally attached. You will see a difference instantly. If the water stops leaking, the packing nut was the problem. If the water continues leaking, the packing nut or the valve fixture was compromised. Replacement of this valve is the only fix in this scenario.

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Slugs & Squash Vines Withered

Slugs are unwelcome guests in many gardens, feasting on your own squash plant. Since the slugs chew on vines and leaf, the vine can begin to wither. The damage caused by slugs can resemble the broken caused by various leaf-eating insects such as caterpillars. To confirm that the culprits are slugs, start looking for silvery mucous trails on and around the squash plant. As soon as you identify slugs as the cause of withered squash vines, implement proper management to rid your garden of this slimy mollusks and maintain them at bay.

Baits

Slug baits can be found to control the annoying pests feeding on your own squash vines. Baits with the active ingredient metaldehyde work best when the weather is warm. Once absorbed, the slugs dehydrate and die, generally in just a day. Unfortunately, these lures are poisonous for cats, dogs and wildlife which may consume the pellet-form lure, and shouldn’t come in contact with plants or vegetables. Baits containing iron phosphate will control slugs in your garden without posing a danger to pets, kids, fish or birds. These baits can be scattered across the squash vines in addition to across the yard or lawn. Unfortunately, since iron phosphate baits prevent the slugs from feeding, it can take several days for them to die.

Barriers

Strips or bands of copper placed around the squash plants will function as a barrier preventing the slugs from gaining access to them. The slime which slugs — and snails — naturally produce reacts with the copper, causing them to obtain a unpleasant electric shock if they attempt to move upon the copper. Copper obstacles need regular maintenance to remove any debris that is lost — such as sticks or leaves — which can land on the copper strips. If not removed, the slugs can use the debris for a bridge to cross the copper and earn access into the squash vine.

Cultural Control

Whichever method of slug management you decide on, combining it with proper ethnic control will greatly decrease the amount of pests attacking the squash vines. Slugs hide underneath boards, stones, debris and in weeds during the day. By removing their hiding places, you take away the shelter they want to live. In addition, slugs favor moist, humid conditions, which can arise because of improper irrigation. Selecting drip irrigation rather than sprinkler irrigation reduces the humidity near the plants and creates a drier environment which slugs and snails do not prefer.

Other Control Approaches

Staphylinid beetle is a natural predator of slugs. Sadly, this beetle also has a propensity to feed on decaying and ripening vegetables and may cause more damage than good. Amphibians, birds and snakes also feed on slugs and help to naturally control their numbers. However, these predators generally won’t offer effective control in large slug infestations. Another option to controlling slugs without harsh chemicals is to bury a beer-filled pie pan in bottom level to trap the slugs, as stated by the Purdue University Extension. The beer acts as bait, drawing the slugs to the pan to drown.

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How to Replace a Toilet That Has Grout Around it

In most cases when a toilet is installed, the installer applies a bead of caulk around the base of the toilet to seal the joint and to make the transition from the porcelain toilet to the tile floor look smooth. However, in some cases, the installer may choose to grout the toilet to the tile floor to match the look of the grout between the tiles. You can replace a toilet that’s grout around it without needing to re-grout the newest toilet to the tile floor.

Switch off the supply valve behind the toilet by rotating the valve’s knob clockwise until it stops turning. Flush the toilet to eliminate as much water from the bowl and tank as you can. Sponge out any remaining water from both to your 5-gallon bucket.

Eliminate the coupler of the supply line from the nipple around the bottom of the toilet bowl having a large pair of slip-joint pliers.

Pop off the caps over the closet bolts on either side of the toilet base with a screwdriver. Loosen the nut on each bolt having an adjustable canopy. Rock the toilet side-to-side to loosen it from the grout around the underside of the toilet. If the toilet won’t move, chip out the grout from around the foundation using a cold chisel and hammer. Then lift the toilet assembly and place it aside.

Chip any remaining grout from the face of the shingles with a cold chisel and a hammer.

Scrape away any remaining wax ring from around the toilet flange using a putty knife. Unscrew the screws which mount the flange to the floor with a screwdriver, and remove the flange.

Install a new flange to the floor around the drain tube using the supplied screws. Place the head of a cabinet bolt into the slot on either side of the flange.

Position the tank of the brand new toilet over the hole in the rear of the bowl and affix the tank to the bowl using the two mounting bolts. Turn the meeting on its side and press a new wax ring set up around the drain hole.

Position the toilet the drain hole and align the closet bolts with the mounting holes. Press the toilet down onto the flange with a slight rocking motion to bench the wax ring.

Place a level over the brand new toilet bowl and slip toilet shims around the underside of the toilet until it is level in each direction. Place a washer over each cabinet bolt before threading a nut onto each bolt. Tighten the bolts using an adjustable wrench. Place a cabinet bolt cap over the tip of each bolt to hide the mounting bolts.

Combine the supply line coupler to the nipple on the bottom of the brand new toilet tank, and tighten the coupler with a large pair of slip-joint pliers. Turn on the water supply valve and test the toilet, checking for leaks.

Apply a bead of silicone caulk around the base of the toilet against the tile. Smooth the caulk with a wet finger to provide the caulk an even, consistent look.

Position the mounting bolts of a new toilet seat over the holes on the rear edge of the bowl, and tighten the mounting nuts to the bottom of the bolts to fasten the bench to the bowl.

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