Taking Corrosion off Pavers

Unsightly corrosion on pavers are able to make your patio or path seem unattractive. A timeless cause of the stains is metallic furniture left from the rain that then rusted and left stains. You can remove the stains and then restore your pavers for their rust-free state.

Chemical Removal

Fresh lemon juice and white vinegar can either eliminate rust stains. For either vinegar or lemon juice, pour or squeeze it straight over the area and let it sit for approximately five minutes. Before the fluid dries, scrub the area with a nylon bristled brush and then rinse with water. Oxalic acid, however poisonous, is another option for removing rust stains from concrete. Whichever you pick, test it on a small region of a paver to be sure it doesn’t bend the pavers.

Mechanical Removal

To skip the chemicals, try taking away the rust using old-fashioned scrubbing. Use a wire brush and dishwashing soap and water to vigorously clean and remove any stains. Rinse with water after you are finished.

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Do You Seal Raw Stone Before Grouting?

Natural stone tiles make an attractive and durable finish material for flooring and walls. After laying the stone tile, you need to grout the joints to keep water and dirt out and to enhance the attractiveness of your new tiled surface. Grouting can be cluttered, but appropriate preparation of the tile are able to keep mess to a minimum.

Seal Before Grouting

Seal your raw stone shingles before grouting. If you do not apply sealer first, grout will adhere tenaciously to the tile surface, and it will be extremely difficult to get off. Grout can also discolor the unsealed tile. Clean any mortar or debris away from the tile surface. Spread the stone sealer evenly across the whole surface of the stone tile using a clean, soft rag or wax. Apply only as much sealer as the stone may absorb. Allow the sealer to dry, which typically takes about one hour. Some porous stone types may need two or three sealing coats before grouting.

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The Best Way to Remove Paint By Lap Board Siding

Stripping old paint off lap board siding takes substantial effort. But it’s an unavoidable evil if the paint is peeling or splitting, and you want new paint to stick. You can strip siding with grinders and scrapers, or you could use chemicals to dissolve the paint, but the quickest and simplest way to remove the paint would be to work with an infrared heat paint stripper. This tool heats up the paint quickly to loosen its bonding to the wood and doesn’t provide enough heat to present a fire risk. It is the safest way to get rid of lead-based paint.

Establish scaffolding at least 12 inches away from the side of the house you’re stripping. You need that much clearance to hold the infrared paint stripper against the wood.

Protect the siding from end with a tarpaulin. Wind dissipates heat from the infrared stripper and lengthens the time you need to keep it in position before scraping.

Spray a light mist of water to the siding prior to using an infrared paint stripper. This will break the bond between the paint and the wood, and even though the risk of overheating the wood is minimum, it produces operation of this stripper safer.

Grasp the heat removal tool by the handle and carry it with its heat coils flush against the siding and the handle parallel to the management of the wood. Hold it against the siding for 20 to 30 seconds, until the paint begin to bubble and soften.

Remove the instrument and scrape off the paint with a pull scraper. Avoid touching the paint together with your hands — it’s hot enough to burn your fingers. If you can not easily scrape all the paint, then do not over-scrape, or you might damage the wood. You may use the tool, but it will work better if you take care of the wood first.

Mix a solution of 80 percent boiled linseed oil and 20 percent mineral spirits, and paint it to the siding with a paintbrush. Allow it to sit overnight, then heat the wood with the infrared removal tool and then scrape. Rub off whatever paint stays with moderate steel wool.

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What sort of Trees Are Pink in Spring & Have Small Fruit?

Flowering fruit trees deliver three-season curiosity in landscapes — four if wrapped in twinkle lights for the holidays. Small-fruited trees offer many disease-resistant varieties in compact sizes using pink spring blooms for suburban or city lots. Several species comprise cultivars that grow well in the warm, dry summers and cool winters of a Mediterranean climate.


Palest pink apricot blooms emerge from red calyxes on one of these earliest-blooming fruit trees from the orchard. Step 1- to 2-inch orange fruit ripens by mid-August. Drought-tolerant, apricots (Prunus armeniaca) develop from U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zone 5 to zone 9, but their early blooms, which begin in early March, may be nipped by frost in cooler zones. California produces 90 percent of all American apricots, mainly from the warm San Joaquin Valley.


Tart “pie” cherry varieties often require more frightening hours than Mediterranean climates offer. However, Japanese cherry (Prunus serrulata) and sweet cherry (P. avium) cultivars develop from USDA zones 5 to 9. Japanese Branches create the very voluminous pink flowers in spring, but may produce fruit. Capulin cherry (P. salcifolia) is a native of tropical Mexico that rises in USDA zones 10 and 11. Unlike a lot of cherries and other vegetables, capulins do not need a cooling period in winter.


Crabapple trees (Malus spp.) grow from 15 to 25 feet tall. They create pink or white flowers in spring and apples having a diameter of less than 2 inches, known as crabapples. The Japanese crabapple (M. floribunda) collection includes stunning cultivars, many of which feature clustered blooms that hide branches in clouds of pink, followed small, red fruits that are much-favored by birds. Larger-fruited trees typically sport white blooms, but some are veined with red or pink. Japanese Sargent (M. sargentii), and several hybrid crabapples prosper in USDA zones 4 to 8, but also the Southern crabapple (M. augustifolia) is much more tolerant and grows in USDA zones 5 to 9.

Purple-Leaf Plum

Purple-leaf plum (P. cerasifera), also known as cherry plum, is a relative of this capulin cherry. Its purple leaf emerges after a short explosion of deep rose-pink blossom in spring. The tree produces tart little plums beginning in mid-summer that attract ground-dwellers in addition to birds. Th short-lived tree — generally around 20 years — rises rapidly to 20 to 30 feet tall, often with multiple trunks. Purple-leaf plums grow in USDA zones 3 to 9, except for the cultivar “Thundercloud,” which rises only to zone 8. Purple-leaf plum bananas several suckers and birds carry seeds past the limits of this garden.

Other Choices

Two additional trees blossom pink and bear fruit small. American Beautyberry (Callicarpa americana) produces purple or white berries, growing in USDA zones 6 to 10. It is a native of the southeastern U.S. and requires high humidity. Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) are tropical fruits, growing from zone 10 through 11. They need high humidity, so irrigation is essential in a dry climate. They contain oxalic acid and its toxic effects can influence those with compromised renal systems.

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Information & Facts on Begonias

Begonia is a genus of approximately 1,000 species, part of the Begoniaceae family and native to tropical and subtropical areas of the planet. There is a great deal of variation among the numerous species, however, typically, begonias are normally fleshy. The flowers are either male or female. They don’t have true petals but vibrant sepals — portion of the calyx, which, in different species, encloses true petals. Begonias can be perennial or annual.

Tuberous Begonias

Tuberous begonias (Begonia x tuberhybrida) have big, showy blossoms in hues of white, yellow, pink, orange and red. The plants are hardy in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11, and grow from 12 to 18 inches tall, with slightly pointed leaves. Tuberous begonias go dormant in the winter. Popular for container growing, the plants are available in single- or even double-flowered varieties and feature several distinct flower forms, like rose and camellia. Smaller-flowered tuberous begonias with a pendulous habit are often planted in hanging baskets.

Rex and Angel Wings

Rex begonias (Begonia rex-cultorum) are evergreen perennials, hardy in USDA zones 10 through 11. They are often grown in containers and also are known for their brilliantly colored leaves. “Merry Christmas” has bright red and green leaf, and is among the several rexes with leaves which are ruffled, curled or twisted. Angel wing begonias, also hardy in USDA zones 10 through 11, are grown for their wing-shaped leaves and their panicles of white, pink or red flowers. They are a part of the cane-stemmed begonia group, composed of evergreen varieties. The leaf is occasionally spotted or marked.

Wax Begonias

Most gardeners consider the low-growing — to 12 ins — wax or bedding begonia as an annual. In fact, Begonia semperflorens cultorum team is an evergreen perennial, hardy in USDA zones 10 through 11. This variety includes fibrous roots and green to green-bronze leaves. Red, pink or white flowers bloom in clusters and can be double or single in form. Wax begonias benefit from regular moisture during the growing season and flower most abundantly in full sun.

Winter-Flowering Types

Winter-flowering begonias are sold as vibrant container plants, which most people discard after flowering. All these are actually evergreen perennials, hardy in USDA zones 10 through 11. The group encompasses well-known types such as Rieger and Elatior begonias, known for their compact growth habits and floriferous natures. They flower in the winter and also thrive on a diet bright indirect light and relatively large humidity of 40 percent. Rieger and Elatior begonias have a variety of flower forms and the full range of begonia colors, encompassing all colors except purple and true blue.

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How to Pollinate Alstroemeria

Alstroemeria (Alstroemeria spp.) , also commonly called Peruvian lily, parrot lily or lily-of-the-Incas, can grow as a perennial in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 7 through 11, despite the fact that it’s kept as a container plant across a much broader range. Alstroemeria is prized because of its attractive, vibrant blooms, which are often used in cut flower arrangements. This plant is propagated asexually by dividing rhizomes or sexually utilizing seed; where pollinators are lacking, as is generally the case on indoor specimens, or if you wish to selectively breed plants, hand pollination is required.

Find blooms on the selected alstroemeria plant that are open and have loose pollen. Pollen is located on anthers supported by long, thin filaments. Combined, these parts are called the stamen; every alstroemeria flower has six. Catch your finger gently into an anther to find out whether a small quantity of pollen sticks to a finger, meaning that the pollen is ready for transfer.

Catch the tip of a cotton swab into the anthers on the plant to collect as much pollen as possible and bring the pollen-laden swab into the plant you may pollinate.

Brush the pollen-laden swab tip gently onto receptive stigmas in blossoms on the chosen specimen. Each flower has one stigma rising from the center of the flower. When the stigma is ready to receive pollen, it seems shiny and is sticky. There ought to be pollen grains visible on the stigma after you touch it using the pollen swab.

Duplicate the transfer of pollen from one plant to another everyday till flowering has ended.

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What Bushes Have Red Berries & Ivy Like Leaves?

A popular and versatile addition to the landscape, holly (Ilex spp.) Grows in several types, including deciduous, evergreen, tree and shrub forms. There are over 300 known types of holly around the world, although not all are grown in the United States. Chinese holly and Yaupon holly are just two species offering dwarf or compact shrubs using ivy-like leaves and red berries, somewhat like Christmas holly.


The Ilex genus was present in America when the first colonists arrived. The shrub was known to Native American men and women, who preserved the crimson berries and made them into ornamental buttons. The buttons were so popular with several tribes they were employed for bartering. Wood from holly bushes is utilized to make canes, furniture and ornamental scroll work. Holly wood was also stained black and substituted for ebony on some sorts of inlay work.

Berry Production Requirements

Most holly species are dioeious plants meaning that they are either female or male, and each sex creates their own flowers. Only female plants produce berries, therefore bees are necessary to carry pollen from male flowers back to feminine flowers. As long as there are male plants within a 1 1/2 to 2 mile radius, pollination will occur. However, some species and cultivars are self-pollinating. Not all Ilex species are considered shrubs, and in addition, not all that are shrubs create red berries. Those that do range in size from compact or dwarf to very large. Evergreen hollies are found in more temperate climates, typically in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 7 to 11. Evergreen varieties include festive winter colour at a moment when, there may not be abundant shade in the landscape.

Chinese Holly Cultivars

“Burfordii” or Burford holly is a compact tree with dark leathery green leaves and plenty of bright red berries. It grows to a height of 12 to 20 feet and spreads to a width of between eight and 10 feet. “Burfordii Nana,” a dwarf Burford holly cultivar is a compact, compact dwarf shrub. With shiny green leaves and red berries, it grows to a height of 5 to 8 feet and spreads equally wide. “Rotunda” is a compact and compact dwarf Chinese hollly. It’s dark green leaves that are covered with spines and creates considerable quantities of red berries. “Rotunda” grows 3 to 5 feet tall and wide.

Yaupon Holly

“Nana,” a dwarf Yaupon holly, is a small shrub with a compact texture. It’s small dark green rounded leaves displaying a yellowish tinge when they emerge, and creates scarlet-colored berries. “Nana” bushes grow 3 to 5 feet tall and spread to between 3 and 6 feet wide. “Taylor’s Rudolph” dwarf Yaupon is a very compact shrub, only growing 3 to 4 feet tall. Its spread extends a foot more than its height, creating a very compact look with its fine-textured leaf. Leaves are small, and upon emergence, are tinged with purple, maturing to bright green. This compact Yaupon holly also creates red berries.

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How Long Does It Take for a Tomato to Switch Red After Being Full Grown to a Plant?

Few things in life are as annoying as waiting for that first green tomato of the season to ripen or your green tomatoes turn red before frost kills plants. Ripening is a complex procedure in tomatoes, making it difficult to predict exactly how much time it is going to have a fully-formed green tomato to turn red.

Inside the Machine

Tomato ripening is a complex process involving tens of thousands of chemical reactions. Pigments like carotene and lycopene are created as chlorophyll breaks down, causing the gradual coloration of this fruit. At exactly the exact same time, acid levels are rising, causing starches in the fruit to convert into sugars and softening the tomato. Under perfect circumstances, this may all occur in as little as a week, however, often requires 20 days or longer in certain weather conditions.

Factors Affecting Ripening

Many factors play key roles in ripening tomatoes, such as ambient temperature, soil temperature, the plant’s natural ability to produce the hormone ethylene and even the number of fruits demanding ripening. Ambient temperatures over 85 degrees Fahrenheit or soil temperatures over 80 degrees would be the primary reasons why tomato plants set the brakes on ripening. Occasionally, a plant is so heavily laden with green fruits that it simply lacks the energy to encourage them all to ripening. Some gardeners remove the smallest tomatoes in an over-burdened plant; raising water and sulfur for plants experiencing hot roots may also accelerate ripening.

Ripening Indoors

Tomato fruits are sometimes ripened inside by craftsmen when sunscald or pest insects are a persistent problem or whenever frost starts to threaten. A tomato picked in the “breaker” point, when a blush of its finished color looks, will ripen fully on the kitchen countertop if kept out of direct sunlight. Tomatoes harvested at the breaker stage contain all of the sugars of a completely vine-ripened tomato and will develop exactly the same taste.

Hastening the Final Harvest

As winter looms and frost threatens, many gardeners rush into the lawn to cover their plants, trusting those remaining fruits will ripen until the plants die. You can speed ripening in your tomatoes by eliminating any green fruits that are not fully developed — these tomatoes will probably not grow further due to cooling temperatures anyhow. Withholding water and fertilizer also will help accelerate the ripening procedure. If a killing freeze is predicted, uprooting your tomatoes and hanging them upside down in a basement or garage will make it possible for the rest of the fruits to ripen on the vine.

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Do it Yourself: Brick Sidewalk Pavers

If you’re planning to put in a new pathway, select bricks to bring a more complex design without raising the problem of installation. Brick sidewalk pavers add a traditional look to landscaping and are used often in walking surfaces. Lay them down along your pathway, and you will be astonished at how the overall look of your landscaping transforms from that one small addition.

Mark the pathway region. Place enough brick pavers around the surface in the desired pattern to discover how wide the path should be to fulfill your needs. Catch a 1/8-inch space between the bricks. Tap stakes into the ground all over the path edges and run string between the stakes to create straight lines to the path.

Remove the pavers and put them around the side. Use a scoop to scoop off the grass if there is any.

Measure the height of the brick sidewalk pavers and subtract 1/2 inch. Remove 4 inches of soil in addition to the width calculation of the pavers. This permits room for sub-material and attracts the pavers 1/2 inch above the ground so that rainwater is not able to readily wash debris on the trail.

Use a level to check the surface. If you’re on level ground, it stands to reason that you wish to maintain a level surface, but you also need water to flow to the either side of this path. Do this by building up the center only slightly, creating a slope into the sides of 1/4 inch for each 2 feet. Use the level that will assist you add and tamp down soil to earn the slope.

Fill in the region with 2 inches of gravel. Spread the gravel out evenly and utilize your level to keep up the slope. Tamp down the gravel with a compactor, walking it back and forth across the region. Check the slopes into the side once you tamp the gravel and add more if needed.

Fill the region with 2 inches of mud in precisely the exact same manner as you did the gravel. Tamp it down and check the slope into the sides.

Start at one side and set the bricks in the pattern that you chose, spacing the brick pavers 1/8 inch apart. Use spacers if required to maintain the spacing as you move. Don’t press the bricks down into the mud.

Pour sand above the brick pavers once you’ve placed them to fill the spaces between the bricks. Use a broom to sweep the mud around, allowing it to fall in between the 1/8-inch spaces. Run the compactor above the surface to place the pavers.

Water the pathway lightly with a garden hose to settle the mud.

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The way to Wire a Floor Lamp

A floor lamp adds style as well as light to your room. Whenever you have a floor lamp that’s no longer working correctly or come across just the right lamp base for your decor in chronological sequence, do not kick them to the curb. A broken socket or wiring can be replaced with readily accessible supplies and tools that are common. .

Unplug the present lamp cord from the power outlet. Unthread the nut at the top of the lamp harp and eliminate the lamp shade.

Pinch the sides of the lamp harp and eliminate it in the holder. Slide the lamp socket to loosen it in the base. Lift the lamp socket upwards and pull a few inches of wire through the base. Unscrew the screw on each of the two terminals with a screwdriver and remove the wires. Put the socket aside.

Untie the knot in the end of this electrical wire, and pull the cable through the underside of this lamp and place the cable aside. Twist off the lamp socket in the threaded nipple, and place it aside.

Thread the lamp socket foundation from a brand new lamp wiring kit onto the nipple and then hand tighten the socket base. Thread the cut end of the new wire through the hole at the base of this lamp, pushing the cable upwards until it looks above the lamp socket. Pull on a foot of cable from above the socket base.

Separate the two conductors in the end of the cable by about two inches and strip about 3/4-inch of insulation from each conductor with a pair of wire strippers. Tie a knot in the cable just under the point where the two wires separate.

Attach the ribbed or striped cable to the terminal screw marked as neutral on the brand new lamp socket with a screwdriver. Then attach the remaining wire to the other terminal. Feed the additional lamp cord through the socket base and then bench the socket to the foundation with a small twist.

Insert a fresh light bulb into the socket. Plug in the lamp cord to the outlet and test the light.

Attach the lamp harp to the holder, then place the shade over the tighten and tighten the nut to fasten the shade.

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