Does All the Wood Stain Have to Be Removed If I'm Employing a Darker Stain?

There are a variety of shades of wood stain and two basic types that are commonly used: solvent and oil based. For restaining to darker colours It doesn’t matter which one you choose. Solvent-based dries faster, but oil-base seems deeper. It is possible to get great results with either product if your presanding is done correctly.


You don’t need to remove each of the old blot to employ darker blot. But you do need to remove all of the lacquer, varnish or anything that will prevent fresh stain from absorbing into the timber. It’s easy to find the shiny edges of old lacquer, or the scratched surface of old lacquer. Your sanding block will creep over the aged lacquer before it begins to cut into it and remove it. The stain color will not change until the lacquer is still gone. When the stain begins to lighten along with your sanding is producing stain-colored dust, then you’ve made it to the surface of this blot. Change your sandpaper often when eliminating old lacquer. Use an oscillating tool with a hook and loop pad attachment and sandpaper as an alternative to some sanding block to remove the lacquer.

Roughing It

Once you’ve removed the lacquer, you want to sand into the stain. The thing is to rough up the surface of the wood evenly so that it absorbs stain evenly. Sand parallel with the grain pattern just. The stain will vanish from some areas faster than many others creating a blotchy impact; that’s okay, it will not appear like that when you apply stain if the new blot is darker compared to the original.


1 thing to avoid is polishing. Wood absorbs stain through pores. When the pores are closed, the stain will not penetrate. Don’t use sandpaper finer than 100-grit. One hundred twenty five or above will polish the timber, closing the pores. Worn out or filthy sandpaper will even polish and close pores. Always keep fresh sandpaper on your hand cube or oscillating tool. Work with consistency to acquire the surface trimmed as evenly as you can. Don’t worry about removing the stain completely, it will not matter whether the new blot is darker.


It’s okay to use an orbital sander initially to remove obsolete lacquer or rough up the formerly stained surface. But it’s vital that you follow up with hand sanding anytime you utilize this type of sander. Orbital sanders leave behind small swirls that will appear the second you apply fresh blot to them. Always follow behind these types of power sander by simply stroking the timber parallel with the grain. Lean down and allow light reflect off the surface of the wood. If there are really no swirls, cross grain scratches or stains of leftover lacquer, keep sanding by hand before applying darker blot. Using an oscillating tool doesn’t produce swirls because the power tool uses a side-to-side action.

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Acquiring Mothballs Out of Furniture's Smell

Mothballs protect upholstered furniture against harm from pesky, fiber-loving moths, but they also usually leave behind a strong chemical odor. This disagreeable odor has a tendency to linger long after the mothballs are gone. Additionally, it may permeate an whole room if even one piece of furniture has been saved with mothballs.

Air It Out

Provide lots of ventilation and airflow to safely and naturally eliminate odors. If at all possible, place small pieces of furniture outside throughout the daytime for up to two weeks to allow the fumes dissipate. The sunlight will also speed the process. For large pieces of furniture, or when it’s not possible to place furniture outside, open a window and then run a fan to move the air. If the furniture has several pieces, like a dresser with a couch with cushions, then separate them so the air can flow around every part.

Heat It Up

Apply a little bit of heat. Until the mothball odor disappears, use a hair dryer on the piece of furniture once a day. This is used in conjunction with the process, and you should do it at a well-ventilated location. Be careful not to overheat delicate fabrics or harm the finish on woodwork by letting the hot atmosphere stay on one spot for a long time.

Absorb It

Baking soda, activated charcoal, coffee grounds and white vinegar absorb odors. Put a shallow bowlor several bowls, of any of these materials on and around the furniture. This method is especially effective for pieces of furniture which have little enclosed interior spaces, like the interiors of a dresser or desk. You might also stuff small spaces with crumpled-up paper to help absorb the odor.

Other Approaches

Use commercial products designed to remove strong odors which do not include added scents. You might also lightly sand wood surfaces which are not observable, like the interior of a cupboard with doors to eliminate the odor from the surface. Refinishing wood places by stripping the existing end and applying a new one can also remove the odor. Spray furniture which won’t be damaged by moisture, like patio furniture, using a mixture of 60 percent denatured alcohol and 40 percent water.

What Not to Do

Do not use water, detergent or other liquid cleaners on wood furniture. It makes the odor harder to remove and might harm the wood. Avoid using thermal fog or ozone generator remedies, as well as any products which use a fragrance to cover up odors. Additionally, avoid enzyme-based deodorizers.

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What Has A Long Stem & One White Flower?

A single white flower on a long, green stem is both striking and fragile. When searching for such a plant, either to your own garden or cut-flower usage, you have a range from which to chose. Select from wax, wax, tropical shrub and wildflower-looking plants which each have one white flower on a long stem.


Tulips (Tulipa spp.) Have fleshy, green comes topped with a single flower. These bulb plants have been low-maintenance. Once awakened, tulips return each year. Individual plants develop from 9 inches to 2 feet tall and bloom in mid- to late spring. White tulip varieties comprise Tulipa “Gwen,” Tulipa “Maureen” and also Tulipa “Clearwater.” Tulips are hardy at U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) plant hardiness zones 3 through 8.

Hybrid Tea Rose

Hybrid tea roses (Rosa) are long-stemmed varieties with a single flower on each stem. John F. Kennedy hybrid tea rose (Rosa “John F. Kennedy”) is a cultivated variety that is hardy in USDA zones 8 through 10. The plant grows 3 to 5 feet tall at a shrublike growth habit, along with its creamy white blooms have a rosy fragrance. The long stems make this white tea rose ideal as a cut flower.

Peace Lily

Long-lasting and well-adapted to low-light conditions, the peace lily (Spathiphyllum x “Clevelandii”) could be grown as a houseplant. In mild climates, it grows well in full-shade places in outdoor gardens. The peace lily is hardy in USDA zones 10b through 11. Long stems with single, white flowers develop over the plant’s verdant, green leaves. Peace lily flowers have a single, large petal that encompasses an erect flower stem.

Snowdrop Anemone

If you would like a wildflower appearance with a single, white flower, subsequently snowdrop anemone (Anemone sylvestris) is one to try. Also referred to as snowdrop windflower, it is a herbaceous perennial which grows 1 to 1 1/2 feet tall. Its 1- to 2-inch broad flowers are easy, open and slightly drooping. Snowdrop anemone is hardy in USDA zones 4 through 8 or 9. This plant grows well in full shade and deep, moist soil conditions. Deer tend to jump this plant when browsing in gardens.

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Temperatures to Grass Seed Germination

If your plan is to start your new lawn from seed, it’s critical to be aware of the very best temperatures for seed germination. Before you purchase seeds and then prepare your lawn for planting, investigate the best seed varieties for your particular climate zone and period of the year, and keep in mind that some varieties may do better when planted with plugs or sod.

Warm-Season Grasses

Warm-season grasses maintain your lawn green through the hot and dry summer season. Plant seeds in mid-spring or early summer. Remember that some warm-season grasses, including some cultivars of bermudagrass and St. Augustine grass, do not do well when planted from seed. The soil temperature range for most warm-season grasses is between 65 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit and occasionally greater. Optimal air temperatures to get warm-season grasses are 80 to 95 degrees Fahrenheit.

Cool-Season Grasses

Start cool-season grasses in the late summer and early autumn, when temperatures are warm and also the chance of rain is greater than usual. Seed that is sown in the spring is nearly certain to fail, according to the University of Missouri Extension. Air temperatures to get cool-season grasses should be between 60 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit, with soil temperatures between 50 and 65 degrees Fahrenheit.

Other Factors

Temperature is one of the most essential factors in grass-seed germination, however in addition, there are other crucial elements to recall. Water grass seed lightly to prevent drowning the seeds or washing them away in the planting site. If the seeds get a great deal of water from rain, take that into account when you determine how much and when to irrigate. Preparing the dirt website by weeding, tilling, fertilizing and grading if necessary, will also go a long way toward avoiding problems.


Temperature requirements can make planting grass from seed seem daunting, but having adequate planning and preparation, it is possible to set up a healthy lawn. Additionally, prices are normally significantly lower when the seed is planted at the ideal time and temperature. Other choices, such as sod and plugs, may be more feasible if you missed the window for planting grass from seed. Sod may also require much more water than seed, since grass seeds require minimal moisture before they appear.

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Colors of Lotus Flowers

The lotus (Nelumbo spp.) Is a perennial aquatic flowering plant which grows in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 5 through 10. Lotus flowers bloom from spring through fall. Individual flowers last a few days but are quickly replaced with new blooms. Lotus leaves grow over the water, unlike the leaves of water lilies that float on the surface.

American Lotus

The American lotus (Nelumbo lutea), also referred to as the yellow lotus, grows in the waters of lakes or rivers across the United States and in parts of Canada. Each day during the blossom season, the yellow-white flowers open each morning and close in the day. Yellow lotus leaves are dark green, saucer-shaped and frequently more than 1 foot in diameter. The flower petals open to reveal a big, yellow, flat-topped seed pod which appears like a drain stopper. American lotus grows 3 to 6 ft tall.

Asian Lotus

The Asian lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is marginally bigger than the American lotus, growing 5 to 8 ft tall. The colours of the flowers may be pink or white, with pink more prevalent. Open flowers are 8 to 12 inches wide, with all the green leaves growing up to two feet across. The flat-topped yellow seed pod is also present in the Asian lotus flower, surrounded by yellow stamens. Asian lotus isn’t native, but can be increased in water gardens.

Color Meanings

Meanwhile, the lotus flower symbolizes purity in the Buddhist and Hindu religions, with different flower colors with different meanings in Buddhism. The pink lotus flower represents Buddha, his history and his legend. The white lotus flower represents purity of thought and of soul. The gold or yellow lotus flower represents the gaining of enlightenment. Lotus flowers are beautiful things which grow from muddy waters. This signifies how enlightenment can come from suffering. Closed flowers signify the time before enlightenment, with flowers that are open signaling awareness.

Growing Lotus

Lotus need full sun and soil to grow. The plants grow from rhizomes and should be planted in submerged containers rather than straight from the pond to stop them from spreading aggressively. Plant the rhizome at the edge of a shallow, wide, closed, weighted container filled with potting mix and 1/4-cup 10-10-10 fertilizer per gallon of soil. Leave about one-quarter of this rhizome over the soil surface. Cover the ground with 2 inches of gravel to keep it from drifting into the water. Initiate the container at a depth of 6 inches once the water reaches 65 degrees Fahrenheit. Since the lotus grows, gradually move the container into deeper water.

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DIY Invisible Fence Questions

A underground pet containment fence is a very simple system that is made up of boundary formed by splitting wires. A transmitter passes an electrical signal through the wires, and if a unit on the pet’s collar comes close to the boundary, the signal causes the collar to emit an audible signal and a mild electrical shock that discourage the pet from crossing the boundary. The systems are relatively simple to install, however do-it-yourself contractors often have questions regarding the systems’ safety and function.

Where should the transmitter be set up?

The transmitter box ought to be set up in an indoor location in which it will be protected from weather, moisture and freezing temperatures. The transmitter requires access to a supply of power, so the very best installation locations are near a properly grounded electrical socket. Because the system’s underground wires will connect directly to the transmitter, a location that’s on an exterior wall having an simple access to the lawn is perfect; garages, crawlspaces and garden sheds are common transmitter locations. Transmitters are sensitive to electrical interference, so that they should not be installed near appliances that generate electrical fields.

How deep should the wires be splitting?

The system’s buried wires must be close to the surface of the yard in order to efficiently transmit a signal to the collar unit. Generally, the wires should be buried in a trench that’s between 1 and 3 inches deep; burying the wires in this thickness allows decent transmission of the signal, while protecting the wire from damage from lawn mowers and other activity on the yard.

Is the program safe during lightning storms or moist weather?

Some fence systems integrate surge protectors in the transmitter, on the external wires, or both in order to prevent harm to the system from lightning strikes or power surges. It is essential that the transmitter be grounded according to the manufacturer’s instructions to reduce the risk of system damage or electrical shock in the event of a lightning strike, power surge, short circuit or other electrical fault.

How can the fence cross driveways or sidewalks?

After the wire must cross a paved surface like a sidewalk or driveway, it must be run beneath the pavement or run through a trench cut into the pavement. Placing a trench in the pavement is the simpler alternative; a half-inch-deep groove cut having a masonry-blade-equipped circular saw is generally sufficient to conceal the wire. After the wire is laid in the groove, the groove may be full of a concrete sealant.

Will the system function in case of a power failure?

The system requires power to operate, so an interruption to its power supply will cause a loss of work. Some systems may be equipped with an optional battery-powered auxiliary power supply that will allow the system to keep working in case of the failure of their household power supply.

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DIY: Paver Sealing

Pavers, whether fabricated or stone, are put in landscaping to add texture and function. Often found in a variety of colors and shapes, pavers are usually porous, made from concrete, stone or clay. If you want your pavers to continue over time since they are exposed to the components, you need to discover some way to seal them away so that moisture cannot penetrate the surface.


Whether you pavers are made of pure stone or another material, such as concrete, then they ought to be sealed from the components in order to last. Paint is an option for sealing your pavers, so long as they are not being used as a walking surface. Since paint tends to make a glossy surface. Reserve painting for pavers being used on walls as well as other non-walking surfaces.

Concrete Sealant

Concrete sealant is an obvious selection for pavers that are made of concrete, even if they are made to look like stone. Film-forming sealant creates a sleek surface, and although often used on areas such as patio pavers, it is better applied on walls and other structures. For patios and trails, utilize an impregnator sealant rather. These kinds of sealants soak into the concrete and prevent moisture from getting beyond the top surface region. This leaves the surfer a bit rougher and safe to walk on.

Concrete Stain Sealer

If you are using fabricated pavers and want to make more of a statement, staining and sealing the pavers is an option. The stain is acid-based and comes in a variety of colours, so you may select one that fits your style. When the acid is sprayed according to the instructions, seal it with a stain sealer. This will safeguard the stain from wear and tear, and as an added plus, safeguard the pavers too.

Stone Sealant

Even pavers made of pure stone may be sealed, although many people don’t. Stone is porous and will break down over time, but usually not as quickly as concrete or brick. There are stone sealants offered in the film forming and impregnator variants. The sealant is sprayed evenly above the stone and permitted to dry. Again, use impregnator sealant on walking surfaces for security reasons.

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How to Water a Hawthorn Bush

Thorned and flower-bearing like other members of the rose family, hawthorns (Crataegus spp.) Are not prima donnas. Most members of this massive hawthorn clan are short and gnarly, with thorned branches which create impenetrable obstacles, making them favorite hedge plants. Indeed, the term hawthorn derives from “haga,” that the old-English phrase for hedge. In the wild, hawthorn thickets provide shelter and food for wildlife. The abundant spring flowers and glowing, orange-red fruit create hawthorns attractive garden trees in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 4 through 8.

Water your hawthorn bush thoroughly when you plant it. Build a short wall of dirt running in a circle round the tree just outside the perimeter of the main ball. Fill with 10 to 15 gallons of water and allow the water to drain into the dirt. In addition to moistening the soil, generous irrigation at planting companies the soil around the hawthorn’s roots. Mulch the plant with several inches of organic compost, taking good care to maintain the mulch from approaching the trunk or foliagethis is going to keep down weeds which would compete with the young tree for water.

Water the hawthorn weekly to get the entire initial growing season. Fill the basin and permit the water to drain through for each irrigation. Alternatively, press on the hose tap into the soil close to the trunk and permit the water to run until it stands on the top layer of the dirt. Should you use the hose at low pressure, operate for about 30 minutes; should you turn the hose to a trickle, count on 2 to 3 hours per tree. You need to provide every single hawthorn with 10 to 15 gallons each time you water, moistening the soil to 12 inches from the drip line. If the bush doesn’t appear vigorous at the commencement of its second summer season, then continue the practice of weekly watering.

Water mature and established hawthorn trees sometimes during dry, hot summers. Although hawthorns can withstand drought, they grow best in moist, well-draining dirt.

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How Long Does It Take Cucumber Plants to Make Fruit?

Cucumbers, an yearly vine, belong to the cucurbit family and are fairly easy to grow when given a sunny garden location with ample room and loose, well-drained soil amended with organic matter. When properly cared for and kept free of disease, cucumbers create long, slender fruit which vary in length from 3 to 24 inches. It’s ready for harvest in 50 to 70 days from planting, depending on how you want to use them.

Fruit Production

Before cucumbers can create fruit, the crops grow both female and male flowers on the exact same plant. The male flowers open first and grow in clusters of three to five years, while the female flowers grow on one stem. When successfully pollinated, the female flowers develop fruit in the flower base and also the male flower drop off the plant. Male flowers outnumber female flowers 10 to 1. You shouldn’t be surprised if a high number of flowers drop because these are the male flowers which have served their purpose.


Honey bees are common pollinators for cucumber flowers, so large populations raise pollination success, while reduced populations can hinder fruit production. For great fruit production, the bees will need to carry pollen from male to female flowers. Poor pollination may also cause misshapen fruit. Unlike what some might think, cucumbers and other cucurbits from the garden cannot cross pollinate, as the female flowers are only fertilized by males of the very same species. Varieties in each species may cross-pollinate, but it does not affect the current year’s fruit, only the seeds.

Failure to Establish Fruit

If cucumber plants fail to flower, it is impossible for them to set fruit. Some common pest conditions that affect flowering include infestation of nematodes. The root knot nematodes feed on plant roots, stunt growth and reduce return. Improper spacing may also cause poor fruit production. When cucumber plants are too close or too far off, it may affect pollination, and plants might produce more foliage and fewer blooms and fruit.

Continuous Fruit Creation

To encourage ongoing fruit production, you want to pick cucumbers when they are still immature. Mature cucumbers are big, yellow and include hard seeds; these are inedible and if you allow the fruit to fully ripen, the plant halts fruit formation. So that the longer you harvest, the more cucumber you may expect to grow in one season. Harvest cucumbers according to usage. Harvest pickling cucumbers when they hit 1 to 6 inches long, slicing cucumbers in 6 to 10 inches long and pepper to get routine dills at 3 to 4 inches long.

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The Size of Citrus Tree Root Balls

The standard for the size of the rootball of seedlings offered by nurseries in the United States is set by the American Nursery and Landscape Association. This standard, which varies in line with the type of tree and species, is supposed to insure that the plant will be able to hold out against the stress of being transplanted.

Measuring Tree Size

The American Nursery and Landscape Association utilizes the phrase “caliper” for the thickness or diameter of a tree. The permitted size of the root ball is based on the caliper of a nursery seedling. For citrus trees, the caliper is measured 1/2 inch above the bud union, where the scion is grafted onto the main stock. On a citrus tree, the bud union should be at least 6 inches in the ground. The minimal caliper for citrus trees is 3/8 inch. Lime, mandarin and tangerine trees might be offered with 5/16-inch caliper.

Minimum Rootball Width

A citrus tree with a caliper of 1/4 inch to 5/16 inch needs to have a root ball at least 8 inches wide. A tree with a caliper of 3/8 to 5/8 inch needs to have a root ball at least 10 inches wide. A tree with a caliper of 3/4 inch or above should have a root ball at least 12 inches wide.

Minimum Rootball Depth

If the width of the ball is less than 20 inches, then its thickness should be less than 65 percent of its diameter. If the width of the ball is greater than 20 inches, then its thickness should be less than 60 percent of its diameter.

Planting the Rootball

A citrus tree ought to be planted in the spring after the danger of frost has passed and at place where it will get whole sun for most of the day. Citrus trees such as well-drained sandy loam or loam soil. To learn if the soil drains properly, dig a hole 1 foot deep and fill it with water. If the hole has not drained by the next day, plant the tree at a different place. Dig a hole as deep as the root ball and twice its diameter. Do not place fertilizer in the hole; that can hurt citrus roots. Wash off about 1 inch of soil from around the root ball so that the roots make contact with the surrounding soil and, being careful not to break the roots, put the root ball to the hole and fill it with soil. Following a light tamping, the cap of the root ball must be 1 inch above the ground. Create a circular ridge of soil about 6 inches high just beyond the main ball to form a basin and water the tree several times to settle the soil around the roots.

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